The nineteenth century in the Philippines brought not only the end of the Spanish colonial period, but also an influx of Peninsular Spaniards never seen before, a timid but noticeable advance in the use of the Spanish language by non-native speakers, and a great economic and commercial development of the Port of Manila and others in the archipelago. The Philippines became an even more cosmopolitan society receiving people, news, and ideas from all parts of the world. In this context, journalism in the Philippines started in the mid-nineteenth century, with a growing number and variety of newspapers coming out in the following decades, in spite of problems such as censorship and the lack of resources, professional journalists, and editors. Almost all the newspapers were written only in Spanish and published by Spaniards, and therefore showed the interests and concerns of mainly the Spanish community. The analysis of these newspapers in search of views on the implementation process of the primary school system from the 1860s reveals a very different tracking of the processes in the government press and private newspapers, with the possible causes to be discussed in this lecture.About the lecturer
Carlos Isabel teaches Spanish language at Waseda University in Japan and is a part-time PhD candidate in History at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid. He is a Visiting Research Associate of the Institute of Philippine Culture (IPC) and participated in the 2015 IPC International Summer School for Doctoral Researchers on the Philippines. His doctoral research is on the implementation and impact of the system of public primary education in the late nineteenth century.